Growth is a process of Physical maturity resulting to increase in size of the body and organ while development is the process of functional and psychological maturity.
Multiple factors determines child growth and development. These factors influences directly or indirectly by promoting or hindering the process. They can be group into:
♦️ Heredity Or Genetic Factors
Genetic factors determine the extent of growth and development, and are also related to sex, race and nationality.
Genetic predisposition is important, it influence child’s grow and development. The height, body, structure, color of skin, eyes and hair depends on inherited gens from the parents. Example
– Tall parents have tall children while short parent have short children.
– Parents with high intelligence are more likely to have children with high level of inherited intelligence.
– Abnormal genes from ancestors may produce different familiar diseases which affects the growth and development.
♦️ Environmental factors
Environmental Factors determines the degree to which the potential is achieved. It includes both before birth and after birth.
Factors that modify growth and development before birth includes maternal Malnutrition, infections, Substance abuse and smoking, thyroxin deficiency, pregnancy induce illness like hypertension, anemia, chronic renal failure, etc.
The factors that modify growth and development after birth includes nutrition, childhood illness, the child’s physical, psychological, cultural and socioeconomic status. Play and exercise can also determines growth and development of the child.